Why do we look the way we are now? Why does each and every individual present on this earth have completely different features and characters? The answers to all these questions are enclosed in a DNA molecule. DNA or Deoxyribonucleic acid is a complex molecule with a long-chained double helical structure. From a simple micro-organism to the most superior creature on the Earth, all depend on the DNA molecule for their existence.
DNA is in fact, the blueprint of our lives. The entire structure of our system is controlled by a DNA. It contains the instructions required by the cells in our body to create proteins and RNA. Genes which are considered to be the basic unit of genetics, contribute only to 3% of the total functions of DNA. Researchers are still trying to find out the complete set of functions performed by a DNA. Not only in the birth and death of an individual, but DNA also helps in various fields like forensic science, medicine, agriculture, etc.
- DNA in the Field of Medicine: With the help of the DNA and genes, it is possible to find the susceptibility of our body to different types of diseases. This would help the doctors to develop the medicines required to enhance our immunity system against the attack of those diseases. DNA has also helped in the formulation of highly effective medicines to cure various deadly diseases prevalent in our current world.
- DNA in the Field of Forensic Science: The law enforcement has become easier with the discovery of DNA. Evidence against the suspects and criminals can be collected with the help of DNA. The judiciary system nowadays relies on the DNA fingerprint tests to determine a suspect’s involvement in a crime scene. The other DNA samples collected from the crime scene like hair, blood, etc., also help to prove a crime.
- DNA in the Field of Agriculture: DNA is used to increase the resistance of the plants to various diseases, insects, and pests. Sometimes, genes from bacteria are injected into the plants to resist the insects and pests. DNA helps in the entire re-engineering of the plants and thus to produce viral proteins necessary for them to survive in the current environmental condition.
- DNA in Animal Breeding: Information within the DNA facilitates the breeding of animals with better resistance to the diseases. Crossbreed varieties of animals could not have been possible to create without the help of genes and DNA. The instructions on how the characteristics vary for each species are contained in the DNA and this information is essential while cross-breeding two different animals.
- DNA to Determine the Paternity of a Child: The paternity of a child can easily be detected through a DNA. The legal cases pertaining to the paternity of a child can be easily resolved by a DNA test. It helps a person to identify his / her parents with scientific evidence.
Other Major Functions of DNA in our Society
- The genetic codes of the fossils which are millions of years old can easily be identified. This can be saved as a reference for future research and studies.
- The probability of a disease that might occur in a baby can be identified before his birth. The possibility of any deformity can also be detected through DNA sampling. Hence, it helps in formulating the necessary medicines required to rectify the problems and diseases at the earliest.
- Tracing our ancestors or long-lost relatives has also become possible with the help of DNA. Geneology research which helps in finding even our distant relatives is one of the most prominent applications of DNA known today.
- The origin of any species also can easily be traced with the help of the genetic codes.
DNA is important for all living organisms. The discovery of DNA has led to the advancements in the field of science and medicine. From the characteristics of our ancestors to the most probable habits of our future generations can be decoded with the help of a DNA molecule. The various characteristics we have received from our predecessors are due to DNA molecules and genes.
The various discoveries that have happened in the field of science would not have been possible without the discovery of DNA. The functions performed by DNA are still not known completely to anyone. But the most important fact is that no life sustains without a DNA. DNA is basically the foundation of the life of all the living organisms on earth.