Gravitation is a force that is present in all objects in this universe. This force exerts on each and every object irrespective of its size, and shape. Whether it is a subatomic particle, or a cluster of galaxies, the universal law of gravitation applies on every particle. In this article we will learn more about this force, and its importance.
What is Gravitational Force?
This is a powerful force that attracts every object to its gravitation center. This force is exerted by the object due to its mass. According to the Universal Law of Gravitation, every object of mass present in the Universe has the power to attract every other object of mass.
The force with which it attracts is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers and directly proportional to the product of the masses. Newton’s third law of gravitation also states that the amount of the force exerted on both the objects is same and remains consistent.
This law is represented as:
It can also be written as F=G(m1m2)/r2
G= Universal Gravitation Constant
F = Force of gravitation that exist between two bodies
m1 = Mass of one object
m2 = Mass of the second object
r = Distance between the mid-point of one object and the mid-point of another object
The value of Gravitational Constant is 6.67 x 10−11 m3⋅kg−1⋅s−2N. Its value remains constant throughout the universe.
Importance of Universal Law of Gravitation
After looking at the apple falling from the tree to the ground, Newton got motivated to establish the connection between astronomical motions, and falling bodies. As a result of this observation he realized that there must be some force exerted by the ground that is attracting the apple towards itself. The length of this force can even surpass the length of the tree. It can even reach the Sun.
A lot of importance is linked to Newton’s universal law of gravitation. The conclusion of this law gives us the answer why a person stays rooted to the ground. It also tells us what force makes the Earth revolves around the sun in its orbit. The conclusion derived from this law is not just limited to daily life objects but also helps in understanding the power by which heavenly bodies work. The law summarizes the idea that every particle of matter in this universe has the ability to attract each other by the gravitation force.
Newton’s law conveys us the strength of this attraction. Based on the conclusion derived from the law, it is clear that it is the gravitational force of the earth that binds the different terrestrial objects towards the Earth. It is the force of attraction that lies between two objects of mass. The law also explains about the force that keeps us attached to the Earth. It explains the revolution of planets around the sun and revolution of moon around the Earth. Prediction of lunar, and solar eclipse and the tides arising due to the sun and the moon are also based on the Universal Law of Gravitation.
Newton derived this formula after extensive study of the eras of measurements from stargazers before him. As per his gravitational law, anything that starts to move from a stationary position undergoes an acceleration. If there is an acceleration, there has to be a force. The process of falling of apple from the tree and reaching the Earth is due to the presence of force of attraction between both these entities/objects.
The extent to which the Earth exerts the force is not just limited to the height of the tree, it can even reach the galaxies. Newton also determined that the moon also experience the impact of the planet’s force of attraction that’s the reason it remains in its position and doesn’t fall down.
According to Newton, weight is the gravitational force that exerts on the mass of the object at any instant of time and is measured in terms of kilograms. As a result, he concluded that the mass of the object remains same at different places, but its weight will change depending on the mass and placement of objects around it. With the universal gravitational law, scientists can estimate the positions of celestial bodies anywhere in the solar system.
Newton’s Universal law of Gravitation has assisted scientists to figure out how much energy is required to disrupt the gravitational bonds of planet. The path of astronaut and the satellite’s orbit that are helpful for communications, planet observation, global positioning information, and scientific research around Earth and other planets are computed with this law.